THE UNITED STATES PROGRAM FOR GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARMAMENT IN A PEACEFUL WORLD

THE UNITED STATES PROGRAM
FOR GENERAL AND COMPLETE
DISARMAMENT IN A PEACEFUL
WORLD


DEPARTMENT OF STATE


DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLICATION 7277
Disarmament Series 5
Released September 1961

Office of Public Services
BUREAU OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D.C. - Price 15 cents.


Introduction

   The revolutionary development of modern weapons within a world 
divided by serious ideological differences has produced a crisis in human history. 
In order to overcome the danger of nuclear war now confronting mankind, the 
United States has introduced at the Sixteenth General Assembly of the United
 Nations a Program for General and Complete Disarmament in a Peaceful World.
   This new program provides for the progressive reduction of the
war-making capabilities of nations and the simultaneous 
strengthening of international institutions to settle disputes and
maintain the peace. It sets forth a series of comprehensive measures 
which can and should he taken in order to bring about a world in
 which there will be freedom from war and security for all states. 
It is based on three principles deemed essential to the achievement 
of practical progress in the disarmament field:

First, there must be immediate disarmament action:

   A strenuous and uninterrupted effort must be made toward the goal 
of general and complete disarmament; at the same time, it is 
important that specific measures be put into effect as soon as 
possible.

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Second, all disarmament obligations must be subject
to effective international controls:

   The control organization must have the manpower, facilities, and 
effectiveness to assure that limitations or reductions take place as 
agreed. It must also be able to certify to all states that retained 
forces and armaments do not exceed those permitted at any stage of 
the disarmament process.

Third, adequate peace-keeping machinery must be established:

   There is an inseparable relationship between the scaling down of 
national armaments on the one hand and the building up of 
international peace-keeping machinery and institutions on the other. 
Nations are unlikely to shed their means of self-protection in the 
absence of alternative ways to safeguard their legitimate interests.
 This can only be achieved through the progressive strengthening of 
international institutions under the United Nations and by creating 
a
 United Nations Peace Force to enforce the peace as the disarmament
 process proceeds.


   There follows a summary of the principal provisions of the United 
States Program for General and Complete Disarmament in a Peaceful 
World.
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FREEDOM FROM WAR

THE UNITED STATES PROGRAM FOR
GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARM-
AMENT IN A PEACEFUL WORLD

                              Summary

DISARMAMENT GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

   The over-all goal of the United States is a free, secure, and
 peaceful world of independent states adhering to common standards 
of justice and international conduct and subjecting the use of force
 to the rule of law; a world which has achieved general and complete 
disarmament under effective international control; and a world in
 which adjustment to change takes place in accordance with the 
principles of the United Nations.
   In order to make possible the achievement of that goal, the 
program sets forth the following specific objectives toward which
 nations should direct their efforts:
The disbanding of all national armed forces and the prohibition of 
their reestablishment in any form whatsoever other than those 
required to preserve internal order and for contributions to a 
United Nations Peace Force;

The elimination from national arsenals of all armaments, including 
all weapons of mass destruction and

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the means for their delivery, other than those required for a United 
Nations Peace Force and for maintaining internal order;

The institution of effective means for the enforcement of 
international agreements, for the settlement of disputes, and for the
 maintenance of peace in accordance with the principles of the United
 Nations;

The establishment and effective operation of an International 
Disarmament Organization within the framework of the United Nations
 to insure compliance at all times with all disarmament obligations.

TASK OF NEGOTIATING STATES

   The negotiating states are called upon to develop the program into
 a detailed plan for general and complete disarmament and to continue
 their efforts without interruption until the whole program has been
 achieved. To this end, they are to seek the widest possible area of
 agreement at the earliest possible date. At the same time, and
 without prejudice to progress on the disarmament program, they are
 to seek agreement on those immediate measures that would contribute 
to the common security of nations and that could facilitate and form
 part of the total program.

GOVERNING PRINCIPLES

   The program sets forth a series of general principles to guide the 
negotiating states in their work. These make clear that:

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As states relinquish their arms, the United Nations must be progressively strengthened in order to improve its capacity to assure international security and the peaceful settlement of disputes;

Disarmament must proceed as rapidly as possible, until it is 
completed, in stages containing balanced, phased, and safeguarded
 measures;

Each measure and stage should be carried out in an agreed period of 
time, with transition from one stage to the next to take place as 

 
soon as all measures in the preceding stage have been carried out
 and verified and as soon as necessary arrangements for verification of the next stage have been made;

Inspection and verification must establish both that nations carry
 out scheduled limitations or reductions and that they do not retain
 armed forces and armaments in excess of those permitted at any stage 
of the disarmament process; and Disarmament must take place in a manner that 
will not affect adversely the security of any state.
DISARMAMENT STAGES

   The program provides for progressive disarmament steps to take
 place in three stages and for the simultaneous strengthening of international
 institutions.
                             FIRST STAGE

   The first stage contains measures which would significantly reduce 
the capabilities of nations to wage aggressive war. Implementation of 
this stage would mean that: The nuclear threat would be reduced:

   All states would have adhered to a treaty effectively prohibiting
 tile testing of nuclear weapons.
The production of fissionable materials for use in weapons would be 
stopped and quantities of such materials from past production would be
 converted to non-weapons uses.
   States owning nuclear weapons would not relinquish control of such
 weapons to any nation not owning them and would not transmit to any 
such nation information or material necessary for their manufacture.
   States not owning nuclear weapons would no~ manufacture them or 
attempt to obtain control of such weapons belonging to other states.
   A Commission of Experts would be established to report on the 
feasibility and means for the verified reduction and eventual elimination of nuclear weapons stockpiles.
Strategic delivery vehicles would he reduced:

   Strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles of specified categories
 and weapons designed to counter such vehicles would be reduced to 
agreed levels by equitable and balanced steps; their production would
be discontinued or limited; their testing would be limited or halted.

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Arms and armed forces would be reduced:
   The armed forces of the United States and the Soviet Union would be
 limited to 2.1 million men each (with appropriate levels not 
exceeding that amount for other militarily significant states); levels
 of armaments would be correspondingly reduced and their production
 would be limited.
   An Experts Commission would be established to examine and report 
on the feasibility and means of accomplishing verifiable reduction 
and eventual elimination of all chemical, biological and radiological 
weapons.

Peaceful use of outer space would be promoted:

   The placing in orbit or stationing in outer space of weapons 
capable of producing mass destruction would be prohibited.
   States would give advance notification of space vehicle and
 missile launchings.

U.N. peace-keeping powers would be strengthened:

   Measures would be taken to develop and strengthen United Nation 
arrangements for arbitration, for the development of international 
law, and for the establishment in Stage II of a permanent U.N. Peace 
Force. An International Disarmament Organization would be established 
for effective verification of the disarmament program: Its functions  
would be expanded progressively as disarmament
 proceeds.

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 It would certify to all states that agreed reductions have taken
 place and that retained forces and armaments do not exceed permitted
 levels. It would determine the transition from one stage to the next.

States would he committed to other measures to reduce international 
tension and to protect against the chance of war by accident, 
miscalculation, or surprise attack:


   States would be committed to refrain from the threat or use of any 
type of armed force contrary to the principles of the U.N. Charter and
 to refrain from indirect aggression and subversion against any 
country.
   
A U.N. peace observation group would be available to investigate 
any situation which might constitute a threat to or breach of the 
peace. States would be committed to give advance notice of major 
military movements which might cause alarm; observation posts would
 be established to report on concentrations and movements of military 
forces.

                           SECOND STAGE

   The second stage contains a series of measures which would bring 
within sight a world in which there would be freedom from war. 
Implementation of all measures in the second stage would mean:
Further substantial reductions in the armed forces, armaments, and
 military establishments of states, including strategic nuclear 
weapons delivery vehicles and countering weapons;

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Further development of methods for the peaceful settlement of 
disputes under the United Nations; Establishment of a permanent
 international peace force within the United Nations;
Depending on the findings of an Experts Commission, a halt in the 
production of chemical, bacteriological, and radiological weapons and
 a reduction of existing stocks or their conversion to peaceful uses;
On the basis of the findings of an Experts Commission, a reduction of
 stocks of nuclear weapons; The dismantling or the conversion to 
peaceful uses of certain military bases and facilities wherever 
located; and The strengthening and enlargement of the International
 Disarmament Organization to enable it to verify the steps taken in 
Stage II and to determine the transition to Stage III.

                          THIRD STAGE

   During the third stage of the program, the states of the world,
 building on the experience and confidence gained in successfully implementing the measures of the first two stages, would take final steps toward the goal of a world in which:
States would retain only those forces, non-nuclear armaments, and establishments required for the purpose of maintaining internal order; they would also support and provide agreed manpower for a U.N. Peace Force.

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The U.N. Peace Force, equipped with agreed types and quantities of 
armaments, would be fully functioning. The manufacture of armaments 
would be prohibited except for those of agreed types and quantities to be
 used by the U.N. Peace Force and those required to maintain internal order. All other
 armaments would be destroyed or converted to peaceful purposes.
The peace-keeping capabilities of the United Nations would be 
sufficiently strong and the obligations of all states under such 
arrangements sufficiently far reaching as to assure peace and tile just settlement of differences in a disarmed world.


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Appendix

DECLARATION ON DISARMAMENT

THE UNITED STATES PROGRAM FOR
GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARMA-
MENT IN A PEACEFUL WORLD


The Nations of the world,
   Conscious of the crisis in human history produced by the 
revolutionary development of modern weapons within a world divided by serious
 ideological differences;
   Determined to save present and succeeding generations from the 
scourge of war and the dangers and burdens of the arms race and to 
create conditions in which all peoples can strive freely and peacefully to fulfill their basic aspirations;
   Declare their goal to be: A free, secure, and peaceful world of 
independent states adhering to common standards of justice and 
international conduct and subjecting the use of force to the rule of
 law; a world where adjustment to change takes place in accordance 
with the principles of the United Nations; a world where there shall
 be a permanent state of general and complete disarmament under 
effective international control and where the resources of nations 
shall be devoted to man's material, cultural, and spiritual advance;
   Set forth as the objectives of a program of general and complete 
disarmament in a peaceful world:
   (a) The disbanding of all national armed forces and the
 prohibition of their reestablishment in any form whatsoever other
 than those required to preserve internal order and for contributions
 to a United Nations Peace Force;

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   (b) The elimination from national arsenals of all armaments,
including all weapons of mass destruction and the means for their
 delivery, other than those required for a United Nations Peace Force
 and for maintaining internal order;
   (c) The establishment and effective operation of an International 
Disarmament Organization within the framework of the United Nations 
to ensure compliance at all times with all disarmament obligations;
   (d) The institution of effective means for the enforcement of 
international agreements, for the settlement of disputes, and for the
 maintenance of peace in accordance with the principles of the United
 Nations.
   Call on the negotiating states:
   (a) To develop the outline program set forth below into an agreed 
plan for general and complete disarmament and to continue their 
efforts without interruption until the whole program has been achieved
 b) To this end to seek to attain the widest possible area of
 agreement at the earliest possible date;
   (c) Also to seek -- without prejudice to progress on the 
disarmament program -- agreement on those immediate measures that
 would contribute to the common security of nations and that could 
facilitate and form a part of that program.
   Affirm that disarmament negotiations should be guided by the follow
ing principles:
   (a) Disarmament shall take place as rapidly as possible until it is
 completed in stages containing balanced, phased and safeguarded 
measures, with each measure and stage to be carried out in an agreed
 period of time.
   (b) Compliance with all disarmament obligations shall be 
effectively verified from their entry into force. Verification 
arrangements shall be instituted progressively and in such a manner as to verify not only that agreed limitations or reductions take place but also that retained armed forces and armaments do not exceed agreed levels at any stage.
   (c) Disarmament shall take place in a manner that will not

12


affect adversely the security of any state, whether or not a party to 
an international agreement or treaty.
   (d) As states relinquish their arms, the United Nations shall he
 pr
ogressively strengthened in order to improve its capacity to assure
 international security and the peaceful settlement of differences as
 well as to facilitate the development of international cooperation in
 common tasks for the benefit of mankind.
   (e) Transition from one stage of disarmament to the next shall take
 place as soon as all the measures in the preceding stage have been 
carried out and effective verification is continuing and as soon as 
the arrangements that have been agreed to be necessary for the next 
stage have been instituted.
   Agree upon the following outline program for achieving general and
 complete disarmament:


                       STAGE I

A. To Establish an International Disarmament Organization:
   (a) An International Disarmament Organization (IDO) shall he
 established within the framework of the United Nations upon entry 
into force of the agreement. Its functions shall be expanded 
progressively as required for the effective verification of the 
disarmament program.
   (b) The IDO shall have: (1) a General Conference of all the parties; (2) a Commission consisting of representatives of all the major powers as permanent members and certain other states on a rotating basis; and (3) an Administrator who will administer the Organization subject to the direction of the Commission and who will have the authority, staff, and finances adequate to assure effective impartial implementation of the functions of the Organization.
   (c) The IDO shall: (1) ensure compliance with the obligations undertaken by verifying the execution of measures agreed upon; (2) assist the states in developing the details of agreed further verification and disarmament measures; (3) provide for the estab-

13


lishment of such bodies as may be necessary for working out the 
details of further measures provided for in the program and for such 
other expert study groups as may be required to give continuous study 
to the problems of disarmament; (4) receive reports on the progress of
 disarmament and verification arrangements and determine the 
transition from one stage to the next.

B. To Reduce Armed Forces and Armaments:
   (a) Force levels shall be limited to 2.1 million each for the U.S.
 and U.S.S.R. and to appropriate levels not exceeding 2.1 million each
 for all other militarily significant states. Reductions to the agreed
levels will proceed by equitable, proportionate, and verified steps.
   (b) Levels of armaments of prescribed types shall be reduced by
equitable and balanced steps. The reductions shall be accomplished by 
transfers of armaments to depots supervised by the IDO. When, at 
specified periods during the Stage I reduction process, the states 
party to the agreement have agreed that the armaments and armed forces are at prescribed levels, the armaments in depots shall be destroyed or converted to peaceful uses.
   (c) The production of agreed types of armaments shall be limited.
   (d) a Chemical, Biological, Radiological (CBR) Experts Commission shall be established within the IDO for the purpose of examining and reporting on the feasibility and means for accomplishing the verifiable reduction and eventual elimination of CBR weapons stockpiles and the halting of their production.

C. To Contain and Reduce the Nuclear Threat:
   (a) States that have not acceded to a treaty effectively 
prohibiting the testing of nuclear weapons shall do so.
   (b) The production of fissionable materials for use in weapons 
shall be stopped.
   (c) Upon the cessation of production of fissionable materials for 
use in weapons, agreed initial quantities of fissionable materials 
from past production shall be transferred to non-weapons purposes.

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   (d) Any fissionable materials transferred between countries for 
peaceful uses of nuclear energy shall be subject to appropriate 
safeguards to be developed in agreement with the IAEA.
   (e) States owning nuclear weapons shall not relinquish control of
 such weapons to any nation not owning them and shall not transmit to 
any such nation information or material necessary for their 
manufacture. States not owning nuclear weapons shall not manufacture 
such weapons, attempt to obtain control of such weapons belonging to
 other states, or seek or receive information or materials necessary 
for their manufacture.
   (f) A Nuclear Experts Commission consisting of representatives of 
the nuclear states shall be established within the IDO for the purpose
 of examining and reporting on the feasibility and means for 
accomplishing the verified reduction and eventual elimination of 
nuclear weapons stockpiles.

D.To Reduce Strategic Nuclear Weapons Delivery Vehicles:
   (a) Strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles in specified
 categories and agreed types of weapons designed to counter such 
vehicles shall be reduced to agreed levels by equitable and balanced 
steps. The reduction shall be accomplished in each step by transfers 
to depots supervised by the IDO of vehicles that are in excess of 
levels agreed upon for each step. At specified periods during the 
Stage I reduction process, the vehicles that have been placed under 
supervision of the IDO shall be destroyed or converted to peaceful 
uses.
   (b) Production of agreed categories of strategic nuclear weapons 
delivery vehicles and agreed types of weapons designed to counter 
such vehicles shall be discontinued or limited.
   (c) Testing of agreed categories of strategic nuclear weapons
 delivery vehicles and agreed types of weapons designed to counter 
such vehicles shall be limited or halted.

E. To Promote the Peaceful Use Of Outer Space: 
   (a) The placing into orbit or stationing in outer space of weapons 
capable of producing mass destruction shall be prohibited.

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   (b) States shall give advance notification to participating states
 and to the IDO of launchings of space vehicles and missiles, 
together with the track of the vehicle.

F. To Reduce the Risks of War by Accident, Miscalculation, and 
Surprise Attack:
   (a) States shall give advance notification to the participating 
states and to the IDO of major military movements and maneuvers, on a
 scale as may be agreed, which might give rise to misinterpretation or
 cause alarm and induce countermeasures. The notification shall 
include the geographic areas to be used and the nature, scale and 
time span of the event.
   (b) There shall be established observation posts at such locations
 as major ports, railway centers, motor highways, and air bases to
 report on concentrations and movements of military forces.
   (c) There shall also be established such additional inspection 
arrangements to reduce the danger of surprise attack as may be agreed.
   (d) An international commission shall be established immediately 
within the IDO to examine and make recommendations on the possibility 
of further measures to reduce the risks of nuclear war by accident, 
miscalculation, or failure of communication.

G. To Keep the Peace:
   (a)States shall reaffirm their obligations under the U.N. Charter
 to refrain from the threat or use of any type of armed force-
including nuclear, conventional, or CBR--contrary to the principles of
 the U.N. Charter.
   (b) States shall agree to refrain from indirect aggression and 
subversion against any country.
   (c) States shall use all appropriate processes for the peaceful 
settlement of disputes and shall seek within the United Nations
 further arrangements for the peaceful settlement of international 
disputes and for the codification and progressive development of 
international law.

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(d) States shall develop arrangements in Stage I for the 
establishment in Stage II of a U.N. Peace Force.
   (e) A U.N. peace observation group shall be staffed with a standing
 cadre of observers who could be dispatched to investigate any 
situation which might constitute a threat to or breach of the peace.


                           STAGE II

A. International Disarmament Organization:
   The powers and responsibilities of the IDO shall be progressively 
enlarged in order to give it the capabilities to verify the measures 
undertaken in Stage II.

B. To Further Reduce Armed Forces and Armaments:
   (a) Levels of forces for the U.S., U.S.S.R., and other militarily 
significant states shall be further reduced by substantial amounts to 
agreed levels in equitable and balanced steps.
   (b) Levels of armaments of prescribed types shall be further 
reduced by equitable and balanced steps. The reduction shall be 
accomplished by transfers of armaments to depots supervised by the 
IDO. When, at specified periods during the Stage II reduction process,
 the parties have agreed that the armaments and armed forces are at
 prescribed levels, the armaments in depots shall be destroyed or
 converted to peaceful uses.
   (c) There shall he further agreed restrictions on the production of armaments.
   (d) Agreed military bases and facilities wherever they are located shall he dismantled or converted to peaceful uses.
   (e) Depending upon the findings of the Experts Commission on CBR weapons, the production of CBR weapons shall be halted, existing stocks progressively reduced, and the resulting excess quantities destroyed or converted to peaceful uses.

C. To Further Reduce the Nuclear Threat:
   Stocks of nuclear weapons shall be progressively reduced to the
minimum levels which can be agreed upon as a result of the find-

17


ings of the Nuclear Experts Commission; the resulting excess of
 fissionable material shall be transferred to peaceful purposes.

D. To Further Reduce Strategic Nuclear Weapons Delivery Vehicles:
   Further reductions in the stocks of strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles and agreed types of weapons designed to counter such vehicles shall be carried out in accordance with the procedure outlined in Stage I.

E. To Keep the Peace:
   During Stage II, states shall develop further the peace-keeping 
processes of the United Nations1 to the end that the United Nations 
can effectively in Stage III deter or suppress any threat or use of 
force in violation of the purposes and principles of the United 
Nations:

   (a) States shall agree upon strengthening the structure,
 authority,
 and operation of the United Nations so as to assure that the United
 Nations will be able effectively to protect states against threats 
to or breaches of the peace.
   (b) The U.N. Peace Force shall be established and progressively 
strengthened.
   (c) States shall also agree upon further improvements and 
developments in rules of international conduct and in processes for 
peaceful settlement of disputes and differences.


                            STAGE III


   By the time Stage II has been completed, the confidence produced 
through a verified disarmament program, the acceptance of rules of 
peaceful international behavior, and the development of strengthened 
international peace-keeping processes within the framework of the U.N
. should have reached a point where the states of the world can move
 forward to Stage III. In Stage III progressive controlled disarmament
 and continuously developing principles and procedures of international law would proceed to

18


a point where no state would have the military power to challenge the
 progressively strengthened U.N. Peace Force and all international 
disputes would be settled according to the agreed principles of 
international conduct.
   The progressive steps to be taken during the final phase of the 
disarmament program would be directed toward the attainment of a
 world in which:
   (a) States would retain only those forces, non-nuclear armaments, 
and establishments required for the purpose of maintaining internal 
order; they would also support and provide agreed manpower for a U.N 
Peace Force.
   (b) The U.N. Peace Force, equipped with agreed types and 
quantities of armaments, would be fully functioning.
   (c) The manufacture of armaments would be prohibited except for
 those of agreed types and quantities to be used by the U.N. Peace 
Force and those required to maintain internal order. All other 
armaments would be destroyed or converted to peaceful
purposes.
   (d) The peace-keeping capabilities of the United Nations would 
be sufficiently strong and the obligations of all states under such 
arrangements sufficiently far-reaching as to assure peace and the just
 settlement of differences in a disarmed world.

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U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1961 O---609147